The Useful Download Links

Little Fish’s Plugin v 1.0
Little Fish v 1.0 is a full free plugin for 3ds-max to develops Particle Flow, by Arash Daemi.

Cartoon Animation.pdf
Learn how to draw animated cartoons – by Preston Blair. Study of this book is very useful for understanding style of the fantasy animation like Walt Disney’s studio.

Animation Festivals

1. Annecy International Animated Film Festival

2. Ottawa International Animation Festival

3. Melbourne International Animation Festival

4. London International Animation Festival

Animation Programs

(3D animation)
SideFX Houdini
Autodesk Maya
Autodesk Softimage
Cinema 4D
Autodesk 3ds Max

Autodesk MotionBuilder

(2D image edit)
Adobe Photoshop

(Film editing)
Adobe Premiere Pro
Avid Liquid
Edius Pro

(Composite, MatchMove)
Adobe After Effects
The Foundry Nuke
Imagineer Systems Mocha Pro

(Modeling, Texture)
Substance Painter
The Foundry Mari

History of Motion Pictures, Animation & CGI

The Burnt City of Iran (BC. 3200)

One early example is a 5,200-year old pottery bowl discovered in the Burnt City (Shahr-e Sukhteh), Iran. The bowl has five images painted around it that show phases of a goat leaping up to nip at a tree.

Leonardo da Vinci (c. 1510)
Seven drawings by Leonardo da Vinci extending over two folios in the Windsor Collection, Anatomical Studies of the Muscles of the Neck, Shoulder, Chest, and Arm.

The Magic Lantern (c. 1650)

It consisted of a translucent oil painting, a simple lens and a candle or oil lamp. In a darkened room, the image would appear projected onto an adjacent flat surface, invented by Dutch scientist Christiaan Huygens.

Thaumatrope (1824)

A thaumatrope is a simple toy that was popular in the 19th century. It is a small disk with different pictures on each side, such as a bird and a cage, and is attached to two pieces of string. When the strings are twirled quickly between the fingers, the pictures appear to combine into a single image. The invention of the device is often credited to Sir John Herschel, but John Ayrton Paris popularized it in 1824.

Phenakistoscope (1831)

The phenakistoscope was an early animation device. It was invented in 1831, simultaneously by the Belgian Joseph Plateauand the Austrian Simon von Stampfer.

Zoetrope (1834)

The zoetrope concept was suggested in 1834 by William George Horner, and from the 1860s marketed as the zoetrope. It operates on the same principle as the phenakistoscope.

Flip book (1868)

An 1886 illustration of the kineograph. John Barnes Linnett patented the first flip book in 1868 as the kineograph. A flip book is a small book with relatively springy pages, each having one in a series of animation images located near its unbound edge.

Praxinoscope (1877)

The first known animated projection on a screen was created in France by Charles-Emile Reynaud, who was a French science teacher. On 28 October 1892, he projected the first animation in public, Pauvre Pierrot, at the Musée Grévin in Paris.

Muybridge’s The Horse in Motion (1878)

He used multiple cameras to capture motion in stop-motion photographs from the horse, and his zoopraxiscope, a device for projecting motion pictures that pre-dated the flexible perforated film strip used in cinematography.

Motion capture, (Eadweard Muybridge 1878)
The first motion capture made base on photographs to get the movements of creatures.

Thomas Edison’s 1893 invented, the Kinetoscope.

The Lumiere brothers’ 1894 invention, the Cinematograph.

J. Stuart Blackton (1906)

The first entirely animated film, the 1906 “Humorous Phases of Funny Faces” by J. Stuart Blackton—who is, for this reason, considered the father of American animation.

Emile Cohl (1908)

The first animated film created by using what came to be known as traditional (hand-drawn) animation, Fantasmagorie by Emile Cohl in France.

Winsor McCay (1911-18)

The more detailed hand-drawn animations, requiring a team of animators drawing each frame manually with detailed backgrounds and characters, were those directed by Winsor McCay, a successful newspaper cartoonist. Little Nemo (1911), Gertie the Dinosaur (1914), The Sinking of the Lusitania (1918).

Katsudo Shashin (between 1907-1911)
From an unknown creator, was discovered in 2005 and it’s the oldest work of animation in Japan (lenth: 3 sec, fps: 16).

The Beautiful Lukanida (1910 or 1912)
Russian-born(Polish) director Wladyslaw Starewicz, known as Ladislas Starevich, started to create stop motion films using dead insects with wire limbs and later, in France, with complex and really expressive puppets and the author was Emile Cohl.

John Randolph Bray and Earl Hurd (1914)
The most successful producer at the time was John Randolph Bray, who, along with animator Earl Hurd, patented the cel animation process that dominated the animation industry for the rest of the decade.

The Rotoscoping process (1915)
Max and Dave Fleischer invented rotoscoping, the process of using film as a reference point for animation and their studios went on to later release such animated classics as Ko-Ko the Clown, Betty Boop, Popeye the Sailor Man, and Superman. In 1918 McCay released The Sinking of the Lusitania, a wartime propaganda film. McCay did use some of the newer animation techniques, such as cels over paintings.

The Apostle (1917)
The first known animated feature film was The Apostle, made in 1917 by Quirino Cristiani from Argentina.

Pat Sullivan Studios (1920)
Otto Messmer of Pat Sullivan Studios created Felix the Cat. Pat Sullivan, the studio head took all of the credit for Felix, a common practice in the early days of studio animation. Felix the Cat was distributed by Paramount Studios, and it attracted a large audience. Felix was the first cartoon to be merchandised.

In Germany, during the 1920s
The abstract animation was invented by Walter Ruttman, Hans Richter, and Oskar Fischinger, however, the Nazis censorship against so-called “degenerate art” prevented the abstract animation from developing after 1933. The earliest surviving animated feature film is the 1926 silhouette-animated Adventures of Prince Achmed, which used colour-tinted film. It was directed by German Lotte Reiniger and French/Hungarian Berthold Bartosch.

Walt Disney (1923)
In 1923, a studio called Laugh-O-Grams went bankrupt and its owner, Walt Disney, opened a new studio in Los Angeles. Disney’s first project was the Alice Comedies series, which featured a live action girl interacting with numerous cartoon characters. Disney’s first notable breakthrough was 1928’s Steamboat Willie, the third of the Mickey Mouse series. It was the first cartoon that included a fully post-produced soundtrack, featuring voice and sound effects printed on the film itself (“sound-on-film”). The short film showed an anthropomorphic mouse named Mickey neglecting his work on a steamboat to instead make music using the animals aboard the boat.

Warner Bros (1933)
While Disney’s studio was known for its releases being strictly controlled by Walt Disney himself, Warner brothers allowed its animators more freedom, which allowed for their animators to develop more recognizable personal styles.

Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs (1937)
Many consider Walt Disney’s 1937 Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs the first animated feature film, though at least seven films were released earlier. However, Disney’s film was the first one completely made using hand-drawn animation. The previous seven films, of which only four survive, were made using cutout, silhouette or stop motion, except for one-also made by Disney seven months prior to Snow White’s release Academy Award Review of Walt Disney Cartoons. This was an anthology film to promote the upcoming release of Snow White. However, many do not consider this a genuine feature film because it is a package film. In addition, at approximately 41 minutes, the film does not seem to fulfill today’s expectations for a feature film. However, the official BFI, AMPAS and AFI definitions of a feature film require that it be over 40 minutes long, which, in theory, should make it the first animated feature film using traditional animation. But as Snow White was also the first one to become successful and well-known within the English-speaking world, people tend to disregard the seven films.

John Whitney (the ’40s and ’50s)
He’s an American animator, composer and inventor, widely considered to be one of the fathers of computer animation. Experiments in computer graphics were beginning, most notably by John Whitney but it was only by the early 1960s when digital computers had become widely established, that new avenues for innovative computer graphics.

Ivan Sutherland (1962)
Ivan Sutherland is considered by many to be the creator of Interactive Computer Graphics, and an internet pioneer. He worked at the Lincoln Laboratory at MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) in 1962, where he developed a program called Sketchpad I, which allowed the user to interact directly with the image on the screen.

The University of Utah (1965)
Utah was a major center for computer animation in this period. The computer science faculty was founded by David Evans in 1965, and many of the basic techniques of 3D computer graphics were developed here in the early 70s. Research results included Gouraud, Phong, and Blinn shading, texture mapping, hidden surface algorithms, curved surface subdivision, real-time line-drawing and raster image display hardware, and early virtual reality work.

Sam Matsa whose background in graphics started with the APT project at MIT with Doug Ross and Andy Van Dam petitioned ACM to form a SICGRAPH (Special Interest Committee on Computer Graphics), the forerunner of SIGGRAPH in 1968. In 1974, the first SIGGRAPH conference on computer graphics opened.

National Film Board of Canada (1969)
The National Film Board of Canada, already a world center for animation art, also began experimentation with computer techniques in 1969. Most well-known of the early pioneers with this was artist Peter Foldes, who completed Metadata in 1971.

First digital animation in a feature film (1973)
The first feature film to use digital image processing was the 1973 movie Westworld, a science-fiction film written and directed by novelist Michael Crichton, in which humanoid robots live amongst the humans. John Whitney, Jr, and Gary Demos at Information International, Inc.

JPL and Jim Blinn (1977)
Bob Holzman of NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in California established JPL’s Computer Graphics Lab in 1977 as a group with technology expertise in visualizing data being returned from NASA missions. On the advice of Ivan Sutherland, Holzman hired a graduate student from Utah named Jim Blinn. He included environment mapping, improved highlight modelling, “blobby” modelling, simulation of wrinkled surfaces, and simulation of butts and dusty surfaces.

Quantel, “Paintbox” (1981)
Quantel released the “Paintbox”, the first broadcast-quality turnkey system designed for creation and composition of television video and graphics. Its design emphasized the studio workflow efficiency required for live news production. Essentially, it was a framebuffer packaged with innovative user software, and it rapidly found applications in news, weather, station promos, commercials, and the like.

First solid 3D CGI in the movies (1982)
The first cinema feature movie to make extensive use of solid 3D CGI was Walt Disney’s Tron, directed by Steven Lisberger, in 1982.

Morphing (1983)
The term “morphing” did not become current until the late ’80s, when it specifically applied to computer inbetweening with photographic images for example, to make one face transform smoothly into another. The first cinema movie to use Morphing was Ron Howard’s 1988.

Alias Research – Maya (1983)
Alias Research was founded in Toronto, Canada, by Stephen Bingham and others, with a focus on industrial and entertainment software for SGI workstations. Their first product was Alias-1 and shipped in 1985. In 1995, SGI purchased both Alias Research and Wavefront in a 3-ways deal, and the merged company Alias Wavefront was launched. Alias Research continued the success with movies like Terminator 2: Judgment Day, Batman Returns and Jurassic Park, and in 1993 started the development of a new entertainment software, which was later to be named Maya.

Softimage (1986)
Softimage developed further features for Creative Environment, including the Actor Module (1991) and Eddie (1992), including tools such as inverse kinematics, enveloping, metaclay, flock animation, and many others.

Side Effects Software (1987)
Side Effects Software’s PRISMS was used extensively to create visual effects for broadcast and feature films into the ’90s, with projects like Twister, Independence Day, and Titanic. In 1996, Side Effects Software introduced Houdini, a next-generation 3D package that proved to be more sophisticated and artist-friendly than its predecessor.

The Abyss (1989)
James Cameron’s underwater action movie The Abyss was released. This was the first cinema movie to include photo-realistic CGI integrated seamlessly into live-action scenes.

3D Studio for DOS, by Gary Yost (1990)
The starting of 3D Studio.

Disney’s Beauty and the Beast (1991)
The other was Disney’s Beauty and the Beast, the second traditional 2D animated film to be entirely made using CAPS. The system also allowed easier combination of hand-drawn art with 3D CGI.

Terminator 2: Judgment Day (1991)
Most of the key Terminator effects were provided by Industrial Light & Magic.

Jurassic Park (1993)
The CGI animals were created by ILM, and in a test scene to make a direct comparison of both techniques, Spielberg chose the CGI.

Match moving (mid-90s)
The earliest commercial software examples being 3D-Equalizer, Mocha, After Effects, Nuke, and many other vfx’s software.

Disney-Pixar’s Toy Story (1995)
Disney-Pixar’s 1995 movie Toy Story used a render farm of 117 Sun workstations. Sun was a proponent of open systems in general and Unix in particular, and a major contributor to open source software.

The Yost Group developed 3D Studio Max for Windows NT (1996)
Autodesk Inc’s PC DOS-based 3D Studio was eventually superseded in 1996 when The Yost Group developed 3D Studio Max for Windows NT. Priced much lower than most competitors, 3D Studio Max was quickly seen as an affordable solution for many professionals.

Side Effects, Houdini (1996)
Side Effects Software’s PRISMS was used extensively to create visual effects for broadcast and feature films into the ’90s, with projects like Twister, Independence Day, and Titanic. In 1996, Side Effects Software introduced Houdini, a next-generation 3D package that proved to be more sophisticated and artist-friendly than its predecessor.

Avatar (2009)
Avatar’s techniques were changed a lot of things in the world of vfx like the realtime CG camera to show actor and his CG’s character (Avatar) at same time.

Virtual Reality (VR)

VR has been defined as a realistic and immersive simulation of a three-dimensional environment, created using interactive software and hardware, and experienced or controlled by movement of the body. A person using virtual reality equipment is typically able to “look around” the artificial world, move about in it and interact with features or items that are depicted on a screen or in goggles.

First 3D photo, Daguerreotype 3D (1849)

View-Master, a stereoscopic visual simulate (1939). The Sensorama was released in the 1950s. Battlezone, an arcade video game (1980). Sega announced the Sega VR headset for arcade games (1991). Oculus VR (2014).